历年英语医学考博真题摘要写作范文：A Blind Zone in Childr-Nutrition
This article reveals a mistaken idea in child-raising which deserves correcting. Most parents take it for granted that children should eat more animal foods such as chicken, meat and fish than grain food because the former are far more expensive and the more expensive the food is the more nutritious it is. However, this is, in fact, a mistaken idea which has lead to malnutrition among many city kids. This is indicated in a survey recently made in Shanghai.(http://zzb.22edu.com/)
What parents don’t know is that carbohydrate in grains, starch and sugar, the main and most inexpensive nutrient for energy supply, is of equal importance in metabolism.( http://zzb.22edu.com/)The energy it supplies is the main source of calories in human bodies,about 60% of the total amount of calories. If there is a lack of calories provided by carbohydrate, protein and fat will be used up to provide the heat and thus can’t play their original roles in the body. Consequently, it results in a retarded development in the children and even malnutrition.
Apparently, the solution to the problem is to provide kids with a well-balanced food containing protein, carbohydrate and many other nutrients, none of which can be done without.
Writing Drill 4(98 FATMD)
In the past several years, many Chinese college students have come to accept psychological consultation(PC) they used to reject. In 1994, many students didn’t care to think about the consultation while in 1996, over 90% of 2132 students in a survey answered the related questionnaires carefully. PC is now gradually accepted by college students in China.(http://zzb.22edu.com/)
Surveys indicate that 70-80% college students have psychological problems and 20.3% have such obstacles. There have been reports on many severe cases resulting from misunderstanding and lack of PC. In view of this, many universities in Nanjing have set up psychological healthcare service for students. Many students have corrected their misunderstanding about PC and bravely asked the consultants for help, which has greatly helped them overcome their mental obstacles. Even some military cadets have begun to consult experts for advice. Experts point out that prompt consultation can prevent mental problems from developing into obstacles, mental illnesses and even suicide.
University psychological consultation, young as it is, has made remarkable progress and grown into a unique course in universities. Though it contributed to students’ healthy growth, it still has a long way to go to be fully understood and appreciated by both students and faculties.
Writing Drill 5 老年健康饮食为先
Aging usually brings about recession in many bodily functions such indigestion, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and other metabolic dysfunctions. However, scientists find that these hypofunctions are actually caused by irrational diets or eating habits. This article discusses this problem and the solution to it.
First, balanced diet with more vegetables than animal food is especially good for the old people. Second, less staple food and less salt in food should be suggested for the aged because overconsumption of these two can lead to cardiovascular diseases. (http://zzb.22edu.com/)Third, more bean food can replace proteins such as eggs and fat as sources of protein. Fourth, light food should be taken in instead of fat and oily foods which usually contribute to cardiovascular diseases. Fifth, doctors always advise people eat more fruit to regulate their digestion, metabolism and cardiovascular balance.
In a word, a balanced diet, more vegetable food instead of fat food are of the first significance to the health of the aged and a long life.
Writing Drill 6
Recently, more attention has been paid to a behavioral prescription for various and physical diseases. It includes laughter, sports, dancing and even crying. These methods have different functions.
Laughter activates over 80 muscles. In laughing, smooth muscles in organs contract and help improve digestion. Crying can give vent to harmful chemicals in the body accumulated by stress. Sports and dancing can relieve chronic illness such as bronchitis, back pain, diabetes, etc. that medication alone can’t do.
Many diseases of today are caused by bad mental conditions, work and stress, family problems, etc. Medication doesn’t usually effect in these cases because it doesn’t treat the cause of the ailments. Behavioral prescription, with its physical and mental massage like sports and dancing, can help patients stay off the cause of their diseases. Therefore, it is advocated by many doctors and health experts.
It is expected that behavioral prescription will applied more widely as an effective therapy in the near future.
Writing Drill 7 Smoking and Health
It is not until recently that smoking has been firmly proved to be hazardous to health. It irritates the throat and respiratory passages. It sometimes leads to poor appetite, nausea, short breath, and irregular heartbeat. More importantly, smoking is associated with chronic and fatal diseases of respiratory tract. Evidence shows that smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to develop cancer of the lungs, throat, tongue, and jaw, emphysema and bronchitis as well. As a result, many nations have made enormous efforts to warn people of the dangers of smoking.
While smoking, particles of tobacco tar and smoke slow down the work of cilia. The tar collected in the lungs can cause cancer. Moreover, nicotine in tobacco can be simulating by affecting various centers on the medulla oblongata region of the brain. It can affect other physiological process that in turn affect the respiratory center in the brain. It can also influence other centers that slow down the action of the heart, constrict the arteries, and cause vomiting.(http://zzb.22edu.com/)
In brief, smoking does nothing but harm to people’s health. Therefore, smokers of any age or kind should try to give it up.
Writing Drill 9 Handwashing and Health
Hospital infection is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality. The risk of transmitting pathogens by the hands of health care workers (HCWs) is increasingly big today. A simple and effective way of prevention is handwashing.
But it is found that HCWs don’t always wash their hands before and after patient contacts. Semmelweis, a Viennese doctor in 1847, believed that high puerperal fever rate in some wards was caused by the hands of some medical students. He ordered that all students wash their hands with chlorinated lime before and between all patient contacts. As a result, the rate fell sharply. His methods were used by some other hospitals but his beliefs were ignored largely at that time.
In the 1980s, a government health organization recommended that handwashing be imposed. But it has not been well compiled, even in ICUs, despite some efforts to improve compliance. The traditional handwashing practice has not been changed yet.
HCWs have their own excuse for the resistance, such as no time, skin irritation, etc. Some say they have done it but surveys prove otherwise. With more multidrug-resistant pathogens on the increase. HCWs have to know that handwashing means health. HCWs: wash your hands before or between patient contacts.
Writing Drill 10 Dangerous Factors in Maturing
On their way to adulthood, adolescens are faced with many dangerous factors. These may include sexual encounters with HIV carriers, violence, mental and sexual abuse, drug abuse, smoking, as well as the negligence from the adults.
What can doctors do to make the teenagers’ world a safer place? Perhaps we should first call for attention from the medical profession to the long ignored needs of teenagers. Some critics suggest that adolescent medicine become a medical subspecialty for more and proper attention to teenagers’ needs. Of course, there are some difficulties such as policymakers’ focus on more general practitioners whereas adolescents are poorly served by the medical community.
Adolescents deserve primary care that is attentive to their special needs. The best way is to encourage policymakers to be interested in adolescent medicine. One of the ways for this is to require most medical students and trainees to master the skills needed to treat teenagers.
Writing Drill 14 Psychological Care of Medical Patients
There are more and more physically ill people accompanied by psychiatric morbidity, which can be physically and mentally harmful if not treated promptly and properly.
However, there is a lack of psychiatric care of these patients, which has to be addressed in no time. There are some cost-effective treatments for psychiatric disorder in physically ill people. But few hospitals arrange formal services for these patients, which may not be efficient in the future. Some health service reforms have also affected the formerly cooperative relationship between psychiatrists and general hospital doctors. Pressure on beds in both psychiatry and general medicine makes the already difficult task of caring for patients with coexisting mental and physical illness harder. Besides, increased consumerism and heightened awareness of coexistence of mental and physical illness adds to demand for relevant services.(http://zzb.22edu.com/)
In view of this situation, some British psychiatrists and physicians suggested that doctors and nurses learn to identify mental problems in their patients and offer psychological care and refer for psychiatric help. In their report, they also provided some relevant knowledge and approaches to treatment and psychiatric services.