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2006中科院考博英语大纲( 含样题)

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中国科学院研究生院博士研究生入学考试英语考试大纲本大纲是在2002年10月起试行的原《中国科学院研究生院博士研究生入学考试英语考试大纲》的基础上修订的,自2005年10月起在中国科学院研究生院范围内试行。考试对象报考中国科学院所属各院、所、站、台、中心相关专业拟攻读博士学位的考生。考试目的检验考生是否具有进入攻读博士学位阶段的英语水平和能力。考试类型、考试内容及考试结构本考试共有五个部分:词汇(占10%)、完形填空(占15%)、阅读理解(占40%)、英译汉占(15%),写作占20%。试卷分为:试卷一(Paper One)客观试题,包括前三个部分,共75题,顺序排号;试卷二(Paper Two)主观试题,包括英译汉和写作两个部分。一、词汇主要测试考生是否具备一定的词汇量和根据上下文对词和词组意义判断的能力。词和词组的测试范围基本以本考试大纲词汇表为参照依据。共20题。每题为一个留有空白的英文句子。要求考生从所给的四个选项中选出可用在句中的最恰当词或词组。二、完形填空主要测试考生在语篇层次上的理解能力以及对词汇表达方式和结构掌握的程度。考生应具有借助于词汇、句法及上下文线索对语言进行综合分析和应用的能力。要求考生就所给篇章中15处空白所需的词或短语分别从四个选项中选出最佳答案。三、阅读理解本部分共分两节。要求考生能:1)掌握中心思想、主要内容和具体细节;2)进行相关的判断和推理;3)准确把握某些词和词组在上下文中的特定含义;4)领会作者观点和意图、判断作者的态度。A节:主要测试考生在规定时间内通过阅读获取相关信息的能力。考生须完成1800-2000词的阅读量并就题目从四个选项中选出最佳答案。B节:主要测试考生对诸如连贯性和一致性等语段特征的理解。考生须完成700-900词的阅读量(2篇短文),并根据每篇文章(约400词)的内容,从文后所提供的6段文字中选择能分别放进文章中5个空白处的5段。四、英译汉要求考生将一篇近400词的英语短文中有下划线的5个句子翻译成汉语。主要测试考生是否能从语篇的角度正确理解英语原句的意思,并能用准确、达意的汉语书面表达出来。五、写作要求考生按照命题、所给提纲或背景图、表写出一篇不少于200字的短文。目的是测试考生用英语表达思想或传递信息的能力及对英文写作基础知识的实际运用。考试时间及计分考试时间总计为180分钟,其中试卷一为110分钟,试卷二为70分钟。卷面总分100分。详见下表:试卷一:题号 名称 题量 分值 时间(分钟)I 词汇选择填空 20 10 15II 完形填空 15 15 15III-A 阅读理解(A) 30 30 60III-B 阅读理解(B) 10 10 20小计 75 65 110分钟试卷二:题号 名称 题量 分值 时间(分钟)IV 英译汉–语篇中句子 5 15 30V 写作 1 20 40小计 6 35 70分钟 SAMPLE TESTTHE CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCESENGLISH ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONFOR DOCTORAL CANDIDATESPAPER ONE PART I VOCABULARY (15 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 point each)Directions: Choose the word or expression below each sentence that best completes the statement, and mark the corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.1. Ten years ago, a house with a decent bathroom was a __________ symbol among university professors.A. post B. status C. position D. place 2. It would be far better if collectors could be persuaded to spend their time and money in support of ___________ archaeological research.A. legible B. legitimateC. legislative D. illicit3. We seek a society that has at its __________ a respect for the dignity and worth of the individual.A. end B. handC. core D. best 4. A variety of problems have greatly _________the country’s normal educational development. A. impeded B. imparted C. implored D. implemented5. A good education is an asset you can ________for the rest of your life. A. spell out B. call upon C. fall over D. resort to 6. Oil can change a society more ____________ than anyone could ever have imagined.A. grossly B. severelyC. rapidly D. drastically 7. Beneath its myriad rules, the fundamental purpose of ___________ is to make the world a pleasanter place to live in, and you a more pleasant person to live with.A. elitism B. eloquence C. eminence D. etiquette8. The New Testament was not only written in the Greek language, but ideas derived from Greek philosophy were _____________ in many parts of it.A. altered B. criticized C. incorporated D. translated 9. Nobody will ever know the agony I go __________ waiting for him to come home.A. over B. with C. down D. through 10. While a country’s economy is becoming the most promising in the world, its people should be more ____________ about their quality of life. A. discriminating B. distributing C. disagreeing D. disclosing11. Cheated by two boys whom he had trust on, Joseph promised to ____________ them.A. find fault with B. make the most ofC. look down upon D. get even with12. The Minister’s _________ answer let to an outcry from the Opposition. A. impressive B. evasive C. intensive D. exhaustive 13. In proportion as the ____________ between classes within the nation disappears the hostility of one nation to another will come to an end.A. intolerance B. pessimismC. injustice D. antagonism 14. Everyone does their own thing, to the point where a fifth-grade teacher can’t __________ on a fourth-grade teacher having taught certain things.A. count B. insistC. fall D. dwell 15. When the fire broke out in the building, the people lost their __________ and ran into the elevator.A. hearts B. tempersC. heads D. senses16. Consumers deprived of the information and advice they needed were quite simply ___________ every cheat in the marketplace. A. at the mercy of B. in lieu ofC. by courtesy of D. for the price of17. In fact the purchasing power of a single person’s pension in Hong Kong was only 70 per cent of the value of the _________ Singapore pension.A. equivalent B. similar C. consistent D. identical18. He became aware that he had lost his audience since he had not been able to talk ____________.A. honestly B. graciously C. coherently D. flexibly19. The novel, which is a work of art, exists not by its _____________ life, but by its immeasurable difference from life.A. significance in B. imagination atC. resemblance to D. predominance over 20. She was artful and could always ____________ her parents in the end.A. shout down B. get round C. comply with D. pass overPART II CLOZE TEST (15 minutes, 15 points)Directions: For each blank in the following passage, choose the best answer from the four choices given in the opposite column. Mark the corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.We are entering a period in which rapid population growth, the presence of deadly weapons, and dwindling resources will bring international tensions to dangerous levels for an extended period. Indeed, 21 seems no reason for these levels of danger to subside unless population equilibrium is 22 and some rough measure of fairness reached in the distribution of wealth among nations. 23 of adequate magnitude imply a willingness to redistribute income internationally on a more generous 24 than the advanced nations have evidenced within their own domains. The required increases in 25 in the backward regions would necessitate gigantic applications of energy merely to extract the 26 resources. It is uncertain whether the requisite energy-producing technology exists, and more serious, 27 that its application would bring us to the threshold of an irreversible change in climate 28 a consequence of the enormous addition of manmade heat to the atmosphere. It is this 29 problem that poses the most demanding and difficult of the challenges. The existing 30 of industrial growth, with no allowance for increased industrialization to repair global poverty, hold 31 the risk of entering the danger zone of climatic change in as 32 as three or four generations. If the trajectory is in fact pursued, industrial growth will 33 have to come to an immediate halt, for another generation or two along that 34 would literally consume human, perhaps all life. The terrifying outcome can be postponed only to the extent that the wastage of heat can be reduced, 35 that technologies that do not add to the atmospheric heat burden—for example, the use of solar energy—can be utilized. (1996)21. A. one B. it C. this D. there22. A. achieved B. succeeded C. produced D. executed23. A. Transfers B. Transactions C. Transports D. Transcripts24. A. extent B. scale C. measure D. range25. A. outgrowth B. outcrop C. output D. outcome26. A. needed B. needy C. needless D. needing 27. A. possible B. possibly C. probable D. probably28. A. in B. with C. as D. to29. A. least B. late C. latest D. last30. A. race B. pace C. face D. lace31. A. on B. up C. down D. out32. A. less B. fewer C. many D. little33. A. rather B. hardly C. then D. yet34. A. line B. move C. drive D. track 35. A. if B. or C. while D. asPART III READING COMPREHENSION Section A (60 minutes, 30 points)Directions: Below each of the following passages you will find some questions or incomplete statements. Each question or statement is followed by four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Read each passage carefully, and then select the choice that best answers the question or completes the statement. Mark the letter of your choice with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.Passage 1The writing of a historical synthesis involves integrating the materials available to the historian into a comprehensible whole. The problem in writing a historical synthesis is how to find a pattern in, or impose a pattern upon, the detailed information that has already been used to explain the causes for a historical event. A synthesis seeks common elements in which to interpret the contingent parts of a historical event. The initial step, therefore, in writing a historical synthesis, is to put the event to be synthesized in a proper historical perspective, so that the common elements or strands making up the event can be determined. This can be accomplished by analyzing the historical event as part of a general trend or continuum in history. The common elements that are familiar to the event will become the ideological framework in which the historian seeks to synthesize. This is not to say that any factor will not have a greater relative value in the historian’s handling of the interrelated when viewed in a broad historical perspective.The historian, in synthesizing, must determine the extent to which the existing hypotheses have similar trends. A general trend line, once established, will enable these similar trends to be correlated and paralleled within the conceptual framework of a common base. A synthesis further seeks to determine, from existing hypotheses, why an outcome took the direction it did; thus, it necessitates reconstructing the spirit of the times in order to assimilate the political, social, psychological, etc., factors within a common base.As such, the synthesis becomes the logical construct in interpreting the common ground between an original explanation of an outcome (thesis) and the reinterpretation of the outcome along different lines (antithesis). Therefore, the synthesis necessitates the integration of the materials available into a comprehensible whole which will in turn provide a new historical perspective for the event being synthesized. 36. The author would mostly be concerned with _____________.A. finding the most important cause for a particular historical eventB. determining when hypotheses need to be reinterpretedC. imposing a pattern upon varying interpretations for the causes of a particular historical eventD. attributing many conditions that together lead to a particular historical event or to single motive37. The most important preliminary step in writing a historical synthesis would be ____________.A. to accumulate sufficient reference material to explain an eventB. analyzing the historical event to determine if a “single theme theory” apples to the eventC. determining the common strands that make up a historical eventD. interpreting historical factors to determine if one factor will have relatively greater value38. The best definition for the term “historical synthesis” would be ______________.A. combining elements of different material into a unified wholeB. a tentative theory set forth as an explanation for an eventC. the direct opposite of the original interpretation of an eventD. interpreting historical material to prove that history repeats itself39. A historian seeks to reconstruct the “spirit” of a time period because ____________.A. the events in history are more important than the people who make historyB. existing hypotheses are adequate in explaining historical eventsC. this is the best method to determine the single most important cause for a particular actionD. varying factors can be assimilated within a common base40. Which of the following statements would the author consider false? A. One factor in a historical synthesis will not have a greater value than other factors. B. It is possible to analyze common unifying points in hypotheses. C. Historical events should be studied as part of a continuum in history. D. A synthesis seeks to determine why an outcome took the direction it did. Passage 2When you call the police, the police dispatcher has to locate the car nearest you that is free to respond. This means the dispatcher has to keep track of the status and location of every police car—not an easy task for a large department. Another problem, which arises when cars are assigned to regular patrols, is that the patrols may be too regular. If criminals find out that police cars will pass a particular location at regular intervals, they simply plan their crimes for times when no patrol is expected. Therefore, patrol cars should pass by any particular location at random times; the fact that a car just passed should be no guarantee that another one is not just around the corner. Yet simply ordering the officers to patrol at random would lead to chaos.A computer dispatching system can solve both these problems. The computer has no trouble keeping track of the status and location of each car. With this information, it can determine instantly which car should respond to an incoming call. And with the aid of a pseudorandom number generator, the computer can assign routine patrols so that criminals can’t predict just when a police car will pass through a particular area.(Before computers, police sometimes used roulette wheels and similar devices to make random assignments.)Computers also can relieve police officers from constantly having to report their status. The police car would contain a special automatic radio transmitter and receiver. The officer would set a dial on this unit indicating the current status of the car—patrolling, directing traffic, chasing a speeder, answering a call, out to lunch, and so on. When necessary, the computer at headquarters could poll the car for its status. The voice radio channels would not be clogged with cars constantly reporting what they were doing. A computer in the car automatically could determine the location of the car, perhaps using the LORAN method. The location of the car also would be sent automatically to the headquarters computer. 41. The best title for this passage should be ___________.A. Computers and CrimesB. Patrol Car DispatchingC. The Powerful ComputersD. The Police with Modern Equipment42. A police dispatcher is NOT supposed to _____________.A. locate every patrol carB. guarantee cars on regular patrolsC. keep in touch with each police carD. find out which car should respond to the incoming call 43. If the patrols are too regular, _____________.A. the dispatchers will be bored with itB. the officers may become careless C. the criminals may take advantage of itD. the streets will be in a state of chaos44. The computer dispatching system is particularly good at ______________.A. assigning cars to regular patrolsB. responding to the incoming calls C. ordering officers to report their locationD. making routine patrols unpredictable45. According to the account in the last paragraph, how can a patrol car be located without computers?A. Police officers report their status constantly.B. The headquarters poll the car for its status.C. A radio transmitter and receiver is installed in a car.D. A dial in the car indicates its current status.Passage 3A child who has once been pleased with a tale likes, as a rule, to have it retold in identically the same words, but this should not lead parents to treat printed fairy stories as sacred texts. It is always much better to tell a story than read it out of a book, and, if a parent can produce what, in the actual circumstances of the time and the individual child, is an improvement on the printed text, so much the better.A charge made against fairy tales is that they harm the child by frightening him or arousing his sadistic impulse. To prove the latter, one would have to show in a controlled experiment that children who have read fairy stories were more often guilty of cruelty than those who had not. Aggressive, destructive, sadistic impulses every child has and, on the whole, their symbolic verbal discharge seem to be rather a safety valve than an incitement to overt action. As to fears, there are, I think, well-authenticated cases of children being dangerously terrified by some fairy story. Often, however, this arises from the child having heard the story once. Familiarity with the story by repetition turns the pain of fear into the pleasure of a fear faced and mastered. There are also people who object to fairy stories on the grounds that they are not objectively true, that giants, witches, two-headed dragons, magic carpets, etc., do not exist; and that, instead of indulging his fantasies in fairy tales, the child should be taught how to adapt to reality by studying history and mechanics. I find such people, I must confess, so unsympathetic and peculiar that I do not know how to argue with them. If their case were sound, the world should be full of madmen attempting to fly from New York to Philadelphia on a broomstick or covering a telephone with kisses in the belief that it was their enchanted girl-friend.No fairy story ever claimed to be a description of the external world and no sane child has ever believed that it was. 46. According to the author, the best way to retell a story to a child is to ______________.A. tell it in a creative way B. take from it what the child likesC. add to it whatever at handD. read it out of the story book. 47. In the second paragraph, which statement best expresses the author’s attitude towards fairy stories?A. He sees in them the worst of human nature.B. He dislikes everything about them.C. He regards them as more of a benefit than harms.D. He is expectant of the experimental results. 48. According to the author, fairy stories are most likely to ____________.A. make children aggressive the whole lifeB. incite destructiveness in childrenC. function as a safety valve for childrenD. add children’s enjoyment of cruelty to others 49. If the child has heard some horror story for more than once, according to the author, he would probably be ______________. A. scared to deathB. taking it and even enjoying itC. suffering more the pain of fearD. dangerously terrified 50. The author’s mention of broomsticks and telephones is meant to emphasize that ___________.A. old fairy stories keep updating themselves to cater for modern needsB. fairy stories have claimed many lives of victimsC. fairy stories have thrown our world into chaosD. fairy stories are after all fairy storiesPassage 4There has been a lot of hand-wringing over the death of Elizabeth Steinberg. Without blaming anyone in particular, neighbors, friends, social workers, the police and newspaper editors have struggled to define the community’s responsibility to Elizabeth and to other battered children. As the collective soul-searching continues, there is a pervading sense that the system failed her.The fact is, in New York State the system couldn’t have saved her. It is almost impossible to protect a child from violent parents, especially if they are white, middle-class, well-educated and represented by counsel.Why does the state permit violence against children? There are a number of reasons. First, parental privilege is a rationalization. In the past, the law was giving its approval to the biblical injunction against sparing the rod.Second, while everyone agrees that the state must act to remove children from their homes when there is danger of serious physical or emotional harm, many child advocates believe that state intervention in the absence of serious injury is more harmful than helpful.Third, courts and legislatures tread carefully when their actions intrude or threaten to intrude on a relationship protected by the Constitution. In 1923, the Supreme Court recognized the “liberty of parent and guardian to direct the upbringing and education of children under their control.” More recently, in 1977, it upheld the teacher’s privilege to use corporal punishment against schoolchildren. Read together, these decisions give the constitutional imprimatur to parental use of physical force.Under the best conditions, small children depend utterly on their parents for survival. Under the worst, their dependency dooms them. While it is questionable whether anyone or anything could have saved Elizabeth Steinberg, it is plain that the law provided no protection.To the contrary, by justifying the use of physical force against children as an acceptable method of education and control, the law lent a measure of plausibility and legitimacy to her parents’ conduct.More than 80 years ago, in the teeth of parental resistance and Supreme Court doctrine, the New York State Legislature acted to eliminate child labor law. Now, the state must act to eliminate child abuse by banning corporal punishment. To break the cycle of violence, nothing less will answer. If there is a lesson to be drawn from the death of Elizabeth Steinberg, it is this: spare the rod and spare the child. 51. The New York State law seems to provide least protection of a child from violent parents of ____________.A. a family on welfare B. a poor uneducated familyC. an educated black family D. a middle-class white family52. “Sparing the rod” (in boldface) means ____________.A. spoiling children B. punishing childrenC. not caring about children D. not beating children53. Corporal punishment against schoolchildren is _____________. A. taken as illegal in the New York State B. considered being in the teacher’s province C. officially approved by lawD. disapproved by school teachers 54. From the article we can infer that Elizabeth Steinberg is probably the victim of ____________.A. teachers’ corporal punishment B. misjudgment of the courtC. parents’ ill-treatment D. street violence55. The writer of this article thinks that banning corporal punishment will in the long run _____________.A. prevent violence of adultsB. save more childrenC. protect children from ill-treatment D. better the systemPassage 5With its common interest in lawbreaking but its immense range of subject-matter and widely-varying methods of treatment, the crime novel could make a legitimate claim to be regarded as a separate branch of literature, or, at least, as a distinct, even though a slightly disreputable, offshoot of the traditional novel.The detective story is probably the most respectable (at any rate in the narrow sense of the word) of the crime species. Its creation is often the relaxation of university scholars, literary economists, scientists or even poets. Disastrous deaths may occur more frequently and mysteriously than might be expected in polite society, but the world in which they happen, the village, seaside resort, college or studio, is familiar to us, if not from our own experience, at least in the newspaper or the lives of friends. The characters, though normally realized superficially, are as recognizably human and consistent as our less intimate acquaintances. A story set in a more remote African jungle or Australian bush, ancient China or gas-lit London, appeals to our interest in geography or history, and most detective story writers are conscientious in providing a reasonably true background. The elaborate, carefully-assembled plot, despised by the modern intellectual critics and creators of “significant” novels, has found refuge in the murder mystery, with its sprinkling of clues, its spicing with apparent impossibilities, all with appropriate solutions and explanations at the end. With the guilt of escapism from real life nagging gently, we secretly take delight in the unmasking of evil by a vaguely super-human detective, who sees through and dispels the cloud of suspicion which has hovered so unjustly over the innocent.Though its villain also receives his rightful deserts, the thriller presents a less comfortable and credible world. The sequence of fist fights, revolver duels, car crashes and escapes from gas-filled cellars exhausts the reader far more than the hero, who, suffering from at least two broken ribs, one black eye, uncountable bruises and a hangover, can still chase and overpower an armed villain with the physique of a wrestler, He moves dangerously through a world of ruthless gangs, brutality, a vicious lust for power and money and, in contrast to the detective tale, with a near-omniscient arch-criminal whose defeat seems almost accidental. Perhaps we miss in the thriller the security of being safely led by our imperturbable investigator past a score of red herrings and blind avenues to a final gathering of suspects when an unchallengeable elucidation of all that has bewildered us is given and justice and goodness prevail. All that we vainly hope for from life is granted vicariously. 56. The crime novel is regarded by the author as _________________. A. a not respectable form of the traditional novelB. not a true novel at allC. related in some ways to the historical novelD. a distinct branch of the traditional novel57. The creation of detective stories has its origin in _______________. A. seeking rest from work or worriesB. solving mysterious deaths in this society C. restoring expectations in polite societyD. preventing crimes58. The characters of the detective stories are, generally speaking, _____________.A. more profound than those of the traditional novelsB. as real as life itselfC. not like human beings at allD. not very profound but not unlikely 59. The setting of the detective stories is sometimes in a more remote place because ___________. A. it is more realB. our friends are familiar with it C. it pleases the readers in a way D. it needs the readers’ support60. The writer of this passage thinks _____________. A. what people hope for from life can finally be granted if they have confidenceB. people like to feel that justice and goodness will always triumphC. they know in the real world good does not prevail over evilD. their hopes in life can only be fulfilled through fiction readingPassage 6Whenever we are involved in a creative type of activity that is self-rewarding, a feeling overcomes us—a feeling that we can call “flow.” When we are flowing we lose all sense of time and awareness of what is happening around us; instead, we feel that everything is going just right.A rock dancer describes his feeling of flow like this: “If I have enough space, I feel I can radiate an energy into the atmosphere. I can dance for walls, I dance for floors. I become one with the atmosphere.” “You are in an ecstatic state to such a point that you don’t exist,” says a composer, describing how he feels when he “flows.” Players of any sport throughout the world are familiar with the feeling of flow; they enjoy their activity very much, even though they can expect little extrinsic reward. The same holds true for surgeons, cave explorers, and mountain climbers.Flow provides a sort of physical sensation along with an altered state of being. One man put it this way: “Your body feels good and awake all over. Your energy is flowing.” People who flow feel part of this energy; that is, they are so involved in what they are doing that they do not think of themselves as being separate from their activity. They are flowing along with their enjoyment. Moreover, they concentrate intensely on their activity. They do not try to concentrate harder, however; the concentration comes automatically. A chess player compares this concentration to breathing. As they concentrate, these people feel immersed in the action, lost in the action. Their sense of time is altered and they skip meals and sleep without noticing their loss. Sizes and spaces also seem altered: successful baseball players see and hit the ball so much better because it seems larger to them. They can even distinguish the seams on a ball approaching them at 165 kilometers per hour.It seems then that flow is a “floating action” in which the individual is aware of his actions but not aware of his awareness. A good reader is so absorbed in his book that he knows he is turning the pages to go on reading, but he does not notice he is turning these pages. The moment people think about it, flow is destroyed, so they never ask themselves questions such as “Am I doing well?” or “Did everyone see my jump?”Finally, to flow successfully depends a great deal on the activity itself; not too difficult to produce anxiety, not too easy to bring about boredom; challenging, interesting, fun. Some good examples of flow activities are games and sports, reading, learning, working on what you enjoy, and even day-dreaming. 61. What is the main purpose of the article?A. to illustrate the feeling of “flow” B. to analyze the causes of a special feelingC. to define the new psychological term “flow”D. to lead people to acquire the feeling of “flow”62. In this article, “flow” refers to a feeling which probably results from _____________.A. awareness B. ecstasyC. unconsciousness D. self-rewarding 63. The word “immersed” (in boldface) is closest in meaning to _____________.A. occupied B. engrossedC. soaked D. committed64. What does one usually act while “flowing” in reading?A. thinks what he is doingB. wonders how fast he can readC. turns the pages D. minds the page number65. The activity which can successfully bring about “flow” is most probably ____________.A. gripping B. difficult C. boring D. easySection B ( 20 minutes, 10 points)Direction: In each of the following passages, five sentences have been removed from the original text. They are listed from A to F and put below the passage. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list to fill in each of the blanks (numbered 66 to 75). For each passage, there is one sentence that does not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on your machine scoring Answer Sheet.Passage 1A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. --- 66 --- America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed. It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. --- 67 --- By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith. (Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea来源:志天在职博士网本页网址:http://zzb.22edu.com/kaoboyingyu/kaoboyingyudagang/91389.html
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