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考博英语语法重点总结独立主格、虚拟语气、非谓语动词、主谓一致、倒装独立主格特征1. 充当句子的状语。2. 有自己的主语,同句子的主语不一致。3. 名词(代词,形容词,副词,介词) 分词4.With 名词 (代词) 分词 (形容词)例:a) It being raining, I decided to stay at home.b) Speech having been delivered, discussion started.c) he entered the room, with his hands open(holding a rifle).真题剖析(1995) 45 cliffs no longer crumbling, the beaches are 46 of the material which would47feed them. 45. A. For B. As C. With D. Because 练习:Do what you need to do to keep the wolf __7__ from the door, the world __8__ your thesis adviser, team leader, or laboratory director. Then use the rest of your time, perhaps at night or on the weekends, to do __9__ you really want to do. 8. A. is B. having C. being D. be虚拟语气虚拟语气(2)1. (should) 动词原形It be动词 形容词(-able)(essential, odd, vital, absurd, regrettable, desirable…) that从句It be动词 名词(pity,shame…) that从句It be动词 过去分词(ordered, begged, voted, moved…) that从句部分名词/动词(表示建议,劝告,决定等) that从句2. It’s (high, about) time that 动词过去式 would rather 动词过去式真题剖析(1997) … I wouldn’t be truthful if I47say that teaching is hard work . … 47. A. do B. did C. don’t D. didn’t(1993)…The Cairo newspapers the next day carried banner headlines about the student demonstration52 , and they 53that the professor be sent home. 53. A. ordered B. pleaded C. decidedD. demanded练习:Years ago the experts warned us that the car-ownership explosion would demand a lot more give-and-take from all road users. It is high time that we__15__ this message to heart. 15. A. took B. would take C. will take D. should take (2003.3) It is edifying, and it is a source of inner satisfaction even __54__ other facets of life prove disappointing. (even if other facets of life should prove disappointing.)54.A. shall B.will C.would D.should非谓语动词动名词、分词、不定式。主动或被动。(doing/done, to do /to be done)发生在谓语动词之前还是之后。(doing/ having done /having been done, to do/to have done /to have been)To在什么情况下作介词,什么情况下作不定式引导词。真题剖析(2000) … In the inner cities of America, newspapers regularly report on newborn babies60into garbage bins by drug-addicted mothers.60. A. droppedB. to dropC. droppingD.drops(2001.3) A heroin addict, for instance, leads a59life: his increasing need for heroin in increasing doses prevents him from working, from maintaining relationships, from developing in human ways. 59. A. destructive B. dissatisfied C. damaged D. derivative 主谓一致1. 整体及抽象概念作主语,谓语通常用单数形式。 How you got there doesn’t concern me. Growing vegetables needs constant watering.2.表示时间、距离、重量、容量、价值等概念作主语,谓语多用单数。 Eight hundred dollars is enough to live on. 3. 以-s结尾的专有名词(linguistics, economics, measles, diabetes等),谓语通常用单数形式。4. “分数或百分数 主语”,谓语跟主语保持一致。 Two thirds of the villages are flooded (the area is under water).5. 不定代词(one, each, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something等)作主语,谓语用单数。 Everyone knows that you’ve come here. If anybody wants to see me, let them wait till I come back. (--thing 的情况例外)6. 谓语同并列主语的第一部分保持一致(as well as, with, along with, together with, as much as, accompanied by, besides, but, except, in addition to, like, more than, no less than, rather than, including等) He no less than John is interested in literature.7. 谓语同最贴近的主语保持一致。(or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, not…but, partly…partly等) Either my father or my brothers are coming. 8. each,every,many a, no … 主语,谓语用单数。 Many a student and teacher has been to the Great Wall.真题剖析(2000) …Mexico City already 52 twenty million people and Calcutta twelve million. According to the World Bank, 53 of Africa’s cities are growing by 10% a year,54 of urbanization ever recorded. 53. A. none B. few C. any D. some 倒装全部倒装1. “There (Here) be 主语” There stand big buildings in this district.Here on the desk lies a pile of books.2. 单个副词(in, out, now, up, down, away, off, then)位于句首(短语动词不可拆,如it blew up.) In came the boss. / Ahead sat an old man.3. 介词短语作状语位于句首 In the middle of the room stood the naughty boy.4. 表语位于句首Especially remarkable was his flat nose.Not far from here is a famous university.5. so,nor, neither, no more 位于句首,代表前文She wasn’t angry, and neither was I.Peter doesn’t like pop music. No more does his brother.6. 分词短语位于句首(分词 be 主语)Gone forever were the days that we depended on foreign oil.部分倒装1. 疑问句2. 否定副词(seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly, little, never, few, not until, not only) 位于句首(作形容词时例外) Never did John speak rudely to his parents.3. “only 状语”位于句首 Only when he comes back can be leave.4. “hardly…when”, “scarcely…when”, “no sooner…than”, “not only…(but also)” 位于句首No sooner had he got into the classroom than the class began.5. not,no组成的词组位于句首(in no way, under nocircumstances, on no account…) By no means should you break the rules. At no time should we give in to difficulties.6. 虚拟倒装(had, were, should放到句首) 7. “形容词/名词/动词 as/though(尽管,虽然) be动词” Small though the room is, it can hold more than twenty people. Search as they would, they could find nothing in the house.来源:志天在职博士网本页网址:http://zzb.22edu.com/kaoboyingyu/kaoboyingyubeisong/96699.html
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